There could be several reasons for this. One could be that when you sowed the seeds they were dug up and eaten by wildlife. Another reason could be that as soon as they sprouted they were then eaten by wildlife, hares and rabbits love young tender pea shoots.
Have you been growing the peas in the same spot each year? That would encourage disease to build up in the soil which could cause problems.
Was it new seed,? some pea seeds are treated if they are to be used for what I call mushy peas, and will not grow when sown, has the new area been sprayed previously, is the soil different in any way, have you had a rootle in the rows to see if the peas are still there, or have been nibbled by any pests.